Children of the Grave: Visual Nuclear Rhetoric in Heavy Metal Music

 

By Heather Lusty

 

Social protest has a long history, particularly in rock and roll – one only need think of Credence Clearwater revival or the Rolling Stones in the 1960s, directly addressing foreign wars and protest movements through their lyrics. Black Sabbath’s seminal protest song “War Pigs” – an anthem that first appeared on their 1970’s album Paranoid, which has been recorded over two dozen times (to date) by other musicians. Musicians from all heavy metal genres acknowledge the importance and influence of Black Sabbath’s reshaping approach to rock and roll in the 1970s. In many ways, Sabbath’s cavalier[i] anti-war song is the prototype for subsequent generations of bands who address political subject matter. While political engagement and the rhetoric of protest has been a mainstay of the rock and metal scene during the last several decades, there has also been a resurgence of nuclear rhetoric in contemporary music videos on the global stage. This essay highlights recent videos that express a steadfast anxiety about Cold War politics and atomic destruction, and argues that historical film footage is playing an ever-more important role in musicians’ ability to articulate those anxieties through visual rhetoric.

A bit of background on the methodological approaches to visual culture studies: Gillian Rose’s Visual Methodologies, first published in 2001, is an early sketch of approaches to what social scientists termed “visual culture,” and articulates the various approaches to studying (what were then) non-traditional texts. The modalities Rose articulates comprise the technological, compositional, and social; the social, which refers to the range of social, economic, and political relations, institutions, and practices that surround an image and through which an image is viewed and used, allows for close readings of visual texts.[ii] Additionally, Rose consigns film, television and video into the “compositional” interpretation, citing Monaco’s vocabulary framework for describing spatial and temporal organization of moving images, distinguishing between mise-en-scene and montage (48). This last category – montage – and discuss the way musicians enhance their songs through the incorporation of nuclear imagery, and to underscore the heightened anxiety and fear of annihilation that presently haunts the social commentary of these artists.

The music of the late 1960s and early 1970s engaged the Vietnam War. In the early 1980s, the Cold War’s apex had countries on edge anticipating nuclear holocaust. Nena’s 1983 smash hit “99 Luftballoons” is a prime example of the anxiety reflected in popular music; Rush’s “Distant Early Warning,” and Iron Maiden’s “Two Minutes to Midnight” appeared the following year, highlighting the ongoing social anxiety of the arms race and its potential to annihilate Western world. The social apprehension of nuclear devastation is directly reflected in the music of the time; recent releases suggest that contemporary bands are also concerned global events and dangers as well. In an age of global terrorism, separatist groups acquiring nukes on the black market, and a rapid deterioration in international relations, particularly between the West and the East, Middle East, and Asia, respectively, it is easy to understand this resurgent anxiety.

Many recent videos make use of this same 1980s-style imagery (as well as the post-apocalyptic landscape) to trumpet warnings about the dangers of technology and globalization. Several examples presented in this essay play on this anxiety, and have been chosen solely for their geographic diversity. Each example contains minimal background on each band’s country of origin in connection to their individualized concerns, outline lyrics from each example,[iii] and include a representative screenshot from each video. While the trend in music videos tends toward performance (and nowadays, dance), European bands tend to have film directors make mini-movies to go along with big releases; the videos presented here reflect that European type of production, enabling bands to develop narrative layers to their songs in ways that the audio tracks alone might not equal.

The first example offered here is Finnish Goth-rock band The 69 Eyes. Last year they released their eleventh album, Universal Monsters; “Jet Fighter Plane” was the first single from the album. This is unusual fare for this particular band – it is their only political song, in an oeuvre otherwise fairly narrow and personal. The lyrics are openly critical of the destructive policies of the Cold War era. While in the West, memories of the Cold War and bomb shelter drills have largely been relegated to the “the distant past” – although perhaps January’s Hawaii missile launch warning is a perfect example of the ongoing international tensions are again at the forefront of global relations – international tensions in Eastern Europe have remained relatively steady. In fact, the decline of the Cold War in the West has been mirrored by a military resurgence of Russian Federation forces all over Eastern Europe, particularly in the last decade. Nordic and Baltic states keep a wary eye on Russian military exercises and games, and on Russia’s support of separatist movements (i.e., Crimea, Ukraine).

Finland just celebrated its 100th anniversary as an independent nation – governed by Sweden from the 13th century, it became a Grand Duchy in the Russia Empire following the Finnish War (Feb. 1808 – Sept. 1809); in Nov. 1917, when the Bolsheviks declared the right of self-determination for the peoples of Russia, the Finnish Parliament immediately issued a declaration of independence, voted on and approved by parliament less than a month later. In recent years, the anxiety over Russia’s frequently aggressive foreign policy has encouraged the Baltics and Finland to ramp up their defenses; in January 2017, 4,500 U.S. soldiers arrived in Poland as part of a NATO operation to reassure its Eastern European allies. In March 2017, the Swedish government decided to reintroduce military conscription—4,000 men and women will be called up for service starting January first, 2018 (BBC). Citing “[t]he Russian illegal annexation of Crimea [in 2014], the conflict in Ukraine and the increased military activity in our neighborhood” as some of the reasons for the return to conscription, a Swedish government report on defense priorities notes the need to boost Swedish military capabilities, including “the deteriorating security situation in Europe, particularly in light of the Russian aggression against Ukraine.” Sweden and Finland are not in NATO, but cooperate closely with the alliance (Nordic neighbors Norway and Denmark are in NATO).[iv] The U.K. sent the first of 800 troops to Estonia last month to deter Russian aggression, so these concerns are contemporary and ongoing (BBC).

In this context, it’s perhaps not so mysterious that a Finnish Goth-rock band would choose, on their eleventh album, to suddenly write a political song. Rock musicians are historically more dialed in to contemporary events – more informed, aware, and engaged in various types of social and political protest than are pop, country, and rap (generally). The lyrics to “Jet Fighter Plan” reflect this awareness, referring to Cold War policies resulting in abuses of power. The refrain echoes the political “we’re making war to ensure peace” rhetoric of the Cold War; stanzas chronicle the history of government leaders trumpeting fear to justify their warmongering (echoing the influential tone of Black Sabbath’s “War Pigs”).[v] In an interview with heavy music web site Blabbermouth.net, regarding “Jet Fighter Plane,” Jyrki said: “The song has a dark early ’80s kind of vibe. I wrote the lyrics with those Cold War-era times in my mind. Strangely, the world has totally returned into those dark days again after recording the song.”[vi]

The publicity photo is quite pointed: Jyrki 69, the singer, reads from a history book appropriately titled The Cold War (John Lewis Gaddis, 2006). In his book, Gaddis, a distinguished historian of postwar geopolitics, examines the principles of two antithetical political systems struggling for global dominance, each with the power to end life on the planet.

The promo is an interesting visual; while including the band’s trademark “goth’n’leather” look, it centers Jyrki, the singer, in a pensive pose. The book title is unmistakably clear to the viewer, angled in such a way that the full cover is visible. The book is chosen specifically to reflect the influence of history, war, and anxiety on the lyrics of the album’s first single. Not every single released has a photo shoot to accompany it; in fact, there are scant few examples of this. Thus, the band carefully orchestrated this visual, as well as the video, to create a supplementary narrative to the song.

The video for “Jet Fighter Plane,” directed by Finnish photographer and director Ville Juurikkala, juxtaposes the band playing the song with spliced footage from military exercises and stills of refugees and shattered domestic scenes.[vii] In fact, there are clearly two narratives in video – the song (the band performing the music and lyrics), and the visual accompaniment. One narrative overlays the other. As the outlined, ghostly figures of the band perform, the background shows another story simultaneously. The song and video start out with the “national emergency” broadcast notice, as the camera pans the faces of women and children refugees. As the lyrics begin, bombed out homes are overlaid with images of the individual band members.

The overall narrative tone of the video is suitably grim, and the images of destruction and displacement highlight the pointed criticism of the lyrics.

Singer Jyrki 69 says of the video’s conceptualization:

As I first heard the instrumental demo of the song, it immediately sounded for me like a song from the early 80’s new wave/post punk days. You know, like when the music was heavily inspired by David Bowie’s dark visions, the Cold War, the threat of nuclear war and “1984” kind of the future. So I wrote such lyrics from the past – and all of a sudden, the history started to repeat itself and the Cold War winds started to blow again! It was very strange – all of a sudden THE 69 EYES have a song which is very “today” and even political, longing back the days of peace […] We also wanted the video to be artistic and visually capturing the vibe and theme of the song. There is hope but also darkness, violence and innocence. And it’s only goth‘n’roll.[viii]

It is clear the band is conscious of the message of the song; choosing to release it first also suggests that the timing and concern are relevant, and that this is a conversation they wanted to spark. They choose to work with a renowned Finnish artist to help them visually articulate the narrative, and it is striking in the way it both stands separate from their other work, and engages in a larger narrative developing in music today.

Draconian, a doom metal band from Sweden, also recently released a fantastic video in conjunction with the first single from their latest album, Sovran. The song, “Stellar Tombs,” was accompanied by an epic 8-minute movie filmed in Iceland (with fantastic drone footage). In this example, the lyrics of the song are fairly ambiguous; without the accompanying film, they would not really call to mind any specific imagery.[ix] The context of the visual language, however, projects a fairly ominous tone over the lyrics; they clearly project a haunting, “humanity-is-destroying-itself” narrative. Beginning with footage of volcanic eruptions, cellular divisions under a microscope, time-lapse plants bursting from the earth, and so forth, the center of the video takes a fairly noticeable turn, incorporating an interesting montage of twentieth-century war footage interrupting the overarching “fighting couple” narrative framework of the video.[x] I’ll highlight the center-lude examples here.

As the musical interlude begins, images from World War II flash rapid-fire on the screen. Footage of bomb testing in Los Alamos, New Mexico, melting through prop homes, destroyers launching missiles, marshaling Nazis, Russian troops parading, American soldiers marching towards an A-bomb explosion all appear quickly. The narrative is one of man’s destructive power – not directed at a particular government, but rather at all governments. Also included are scenes of social protest.

 

 

Part of the effectiveness of this narrative is the bombardment of images. One must watch the video over and over to distinguish all the footage and events included. Together, they overwhelm the viewer with the totality of violence and the brutal history of twentieth-century man. Bombers swarm the sky in other parts of the video, overshadowing the male character who is lost in the desolate, post-apocalyptic landscape of remote Iceland. The ruins of a city flicker in and out of the frames like a ghost. This visual imagery is fairly indicative of the gloomy undercurrents of the album, all centering on loss, destruction, desolation. The montage of historical footage here, which overlays the two human figures of the video, provides a fantastic, overarching perspective of the sudden, often violent technological and political surges of human production.

Much of this footage looks like it is part of the material filmed by the U.S. government during testing and wartime deployment of weapons, as well as from archival footage of the blasts. As a general rule, government documentation cannot be copyrighted, and is available for private use; the Department of Energy has publically released approximately 100 military films to date. Two recent atomic documentaries, Countdown to Zero and Nuclear Tipping Point also use archival images, arguing that the proliferation of atomic terrorism is on the rise. The result of the open access to this footage is a surge in fiery images on television and movie screens.

While the above bands are Nordic, one of America’s most outspoken metal bands, Megadeth, released a series of videos engaging in similar concerns to accompany the first singles from their 2016 album Dystopia. acclaimed as their greatest album in a decade. Singer/lyricist Dave Mustaine has often come across as a conservative, anti-globalization alarmist, so this example serves as a counterbalance to the previous videos. The visual narrative suggests that total destruction is imminent, and that the war against outside threats has already begun. The first two singles/videos are essentially Part 1 and Part 2 of an animated film, visual renderings of the anxieties and fears of contemporary politics. “The Threat is Real” and “Dystopia”[xi] present a post-apocalyptic New York suffering under the encroaching threat of terrorism – in fact, a heavy metal Lady Liberty, fighting for America’s freedom, is kidnapped and beheaded in front of Vic Rattlehead, the band mascot, who goes on a rampage to bring her killer to justice.


The racially specific terrorist depicted here, clearly of Middle-Eastern origin, is on a nefarious mission to kill Lady Liberty herself, which he rather graphically does via the style of ISIS’s frequently filmed beheadings. The overall sense of these videos is not just of impending nuclear doom, but also the post-apocalyptic landscape of an America without liberty and freedom. This is not limited to “homegrown terrorism,” per say; the video alludes to a heavily armed police state, in which drones hunt and kill, tanks roll through the streets, body-armored police execute pedestrians with explosive head-shots. Mustaine notes of the virtual reality animated videos:

I’m really exited about this. I don’t know anybody else who has done virtual reality performances in metal . . . I thought it would be really cool to show this, where you don’t have a particular antagonist. You don’t have somebody to be the bad guy just because he’s a bad guy, but somebody who could be so innocuous that he could be anything. He could be an arms dealer. He could be a human trafficker. He’s the bad guy. And Vic [Rattlehead] and this person, he’s the person who is gonna be the cyborg who is on the cover [of the album] with the metal Mohawk. That’s Vic’s sidekick who ends up fighting through the videos.[xii]

Several critics have noted that Mustaine’s lyrics are offensively xenophobic;[xiii] Mustaine, meanwhile, shirks the responsibility of the political mantle on this album, saying:

It’s funny that you bring this up because it became clear to me several years ago that when you start talking about politics, you immediately divide your  audience in half. And what in the beginning was, you know, quite tongue-in-cheek, kind of one-liner stuff started to, unfortunately, define me as a songwriter, and now people think that I’m a political songwriter, which I’m not. In fact, we write about all kinds of different things, but looking at the landscape right now, these are really, really crazy [times]. Look at, like you said, the natural disasters — everything that’s going on, the inability for anyone just about anywhere to get along, and it just makes you wonder, “How did we become so devolved?” It’s like the Decline of Western Civilization part three.[xiv]

A brief sweep of the track listing, however, betrays a heavy interest in contemporary politics: “The Threat Is Real,” “Dystopia,” “Post American World,” and “Foreign Policy” (a cover originally written by the band Fear) are a few more overt examples of the heavy influence of current events on the album. It’s undeniable that the animated film videos to accompany the first released tracks are charged with political sentiment, staunchly fear-mongering warnings of the threats to liberty and democracy.
Black Sabbath, who just wrapped up their final tour, “The End,” has been playing “War Pigs” pretty consistently for 35 years, but there has never been an accompanying video – the song is obviously pre-MTV era. However, since technology has developed significantly since their 1970 Paris concert, which is the only real video widely available of them performing “War Pigs,” they now use film footage as a backdrop to their performance (as many bands do). Given that this particular song, more than any other of their many hits, has taken on a life of its own, it is fitting to look at “War Pigs” as the ultimate anti-war anthem. The lyrics are fairly general, and easily applicable to any government, any war, any era – and governments have continued to monetize their military capacity and presence over the last four decades. Smart bombs, drones, and guided missile systems still make mistakes; superpowers still maintain armaments and threaten peace on a regular basis. In this sense, the anthemic importance of “War Pigs” has never waivered, and it is fitting to look at how Black Sabbath has used technology to illustrate their iconic song while performing on tour.

Throughout the song, footage of atomic bomb detonations features in tandem with live camera feeds from the show. The footage looks like it comes from the atomic testing done during WWII. Below are a few samples:

On the enormous screen backdrop, video footage of total destruction, a visual end-of-days apocalyptic message, overshadows the performance. This now-regular visual narrative (the supplement to this song has been used for over a decade by the band during live performances) is both the standard for social-protest movement rock music, and obviously has a fairly large influence on contemporary music, particularly for rock and metal bands who engage with global events, criticize government policies, and use their music to promote awareness of the dangers of complacency.

Interest in the terrible potential of nuclear power has never abated. Physicist Gregg Springs, at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), is leading an initiative to collect, declassify, scan, and assess America’s nuclear history; the records of more than 200 atmospheric tests, shot from various angles, resulted in nearly 10,000 films. So far, more than 4,000 have been digitally scanned, and Spriggs’ team has analyzed almost 500 of them.[xv] They hope to provide more accurate information about the effects of nuclear weapons than the often inaccurate data collected during the tests 50 years ago. Just 750 of these films have been declassified so far, but they are being made available to the public for the first time. It is likely that the readily available government footage, as well as other contemporaneous news footage, will continue to appear in visual rhetoric in the future.

The importance of real life visual film footage is integral to bands who engage in political conversations. Beyond the bomb, for example, 2017 has been an explosive year politically, with the general population more engaged with politics and dissent than in the past. Several bands have made similar use of the spirit of protest in recently released videos. Ministry released the first single, “Antifa,” from the upcoming album AmeriKKKant (due out March 2018). The accompanying official video incorporates footage from numerous protests from the current year.[xvi] Frontman Al Jourgensen says of the song:

I do believe that people should stand up for themselves and not be a party to this bullshit we’ve been fed […] I think Antifa is a state of mind. It’s, like, “We’re not going to take this shit anymore, because we’ve been sold a bad bill of goods here by you people.” […] I relish the attitude of Antifa; I think that some of the tactics they take actually hurt the cause or the thought process more than it helps, but I do enjoy the “Enough!” aspect of it, and that’s what this song is about.[xvii]

The album artwork reflects the political commentary as well – Lady Liberty, distressed, hangs her head in shame and covers her eyes. Jourgensen notes that the song “Antifa” and the forthcoming album, Amerikkkant are meant to stand up to the political chaos that is currently going on in America.[xviii]

Another example of contemporary news reels contributing to the visual narrative of a band’s music is the recent fracas between Power Trip and Fox News; the band issued a “Cease and Desist” notice to the news station (who played a clip of their song “Executioner’s Tax (Swinging of the Axe),” and the group objected to the usage. During Power Trip’s performance at the 2017 Loudwire Awards, they inter-spliced footage of various conflicts around the world with the (now) infamous video of white nationalist Richard Spencer begin punched during an interview. They note of the inclusion of that particular footage, “We weren’t just attacking the right […] It was kind of an all-encompassing ‘shit is fucked’ kind of situation,” said lyricist Riley Gale. Drummer Chris Ulsh added, “But also, fuck that dude,” to which Gale replied, “Yeah, fuck that dude [Richard Spencer]. That guy deserved to get punched.”[xix]

In an increasingly visual world, in which news consists largely of video reporting, it is only natural that visual narratives be appropriated to help bands create a second layer of storytelling that illustrates their overt meaning (whether or not their lyrics are specific and political or general and apolitical). The visual content of music videos is shifting increasingly away from performance videos, traditional concert or created content that simply film bands singing the song, occasionally in a fictitious scenario, to direct appropriation of real footage from contemporaneous events to which the band is responding or engaging with.

 

Endnotes

[i] Originally titled “Walpurgis,” for witches’ night – the record company worried it was too satanic sounding, according to lyricist Geezer Butler; the band changed the title, but none of the lyrics. Wiederhorn, John. “Black Sabbath Bassist Geezer Butler Gets ‘Paranoid.’” Noisecreep. 30 July 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2017. http://noisecreep.com/black-sabbath-bassist-geezer-butler-gets-paranoid/.

[ii] Rose, Gillian. Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to Researching Visual Materials. 4th Ed. SAGE Publications, 2016. p. 17.

[iii] Because of the complicated and restrictive process of securing permission to reprint song lyrics, I’ll discuss the tone and content of the lyrics without quoting them here, and link to the full lyrics available online.

[iv] Most of the 28 EU member states abolished military conscription; France and the UK have made their armed forces fully professional. Germany suspended conscription in 2011, but a constitutional provision remains; there is a current debate taking place about reintroducing some form of national service there. Finland requires all men from the age of 18 to serve up to 347 days in the armed forces; they are later counted as reserves and can be required to take military refresher courses. Russia requires all men to spend a year in the armed forces between the ages of 18-27. Ukraine brought back conscription in 2014. BBC News. “Sweden brings back military conscription amid Baltic tensions.” 2 March 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-39140100.

[v] The 69 Eyes. “Jet Fighter Plane.” AZ Lyrics, 2016, https://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/69eyes/jetfighterplane.html.

[vi] Blabbermouth. “THE 69 EYES: Video for new single ‘Jet Fighter Plane.” 15 January 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2017. http://archive.blabbermouth.net/news/the-69-eyes-video-for-new-single-jet-fighter-plane.html#pPTJZ664zKp0XACp.99.

[vii] The 69 Eyes, “Jet Fighter Plane,” official music video, directed by Ville Juurikkala, 2016. Nuclear Blast Records.

[viii] Vandala, “The 69 Eyes Release First Single and Music Video for ‘Jet Fighter Plane.’” Vandala Magazine. 16 January 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2017. https://vandalamagazine.com/2016/01/20/the-69-eyes-release-first-single-and-music-video-for-jet-fighter-plane/

[ix] Draconian, “Stellar Tombs,” Dark Lyrics. 2015. http://www.darklyrics.com/lyrics/draconian/sovran.html#4

[x] Draconian, “Stellar Tombs,” official music video, written and directed by Bowen Stains, 2015. Nuclear Blast Records.

[xi] Megadeth, “The Threat Is Real,” “Dystopia,” official videos, 2016, directed by Blair Underwood.

[xii] Childers, Chad, “Megadeth Continue ‘The Threat is Real” Story with ‘Dystopia’ Video,” Loudwire, 21 January 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2017. http://loudwire.com/megadeth-dystopia-video/.

[xiii] Aspray, Benjamin, “Megadeth: Dystopia, Slant Magazine, 22 January 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2017. https://www.slantmagazine.com/music/review/megadeth-dystopia.

[xiv] Full Metal Jackie, “Megadeth’s Dave Mustaine Not a Political Songwriter: ‘We Write About All Kinds of Different Things,” 20 October 2017. Loudwire. Retrieved 04 December 2017. http://loudwire.com/megadeth-dave-mustaine-not-political-songwriter/.

[xv] O’Brian, Nolan. “Physicist declassifies rescued nuclear test films.” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 14 March 2017. https://www.llnl.gov/news/physicist-declassifies-rescued-nuclear-test-films.

[xvi] Ministry, “Antifa,” official music video, 2017, Nuclear Blast Records.

[xvii] Ministry, “Deconstructing the song ‘Antifa’” (Official Trailer), 2017, Nuclear Blast Records.

[xviii] Christopher, Michael. “Ministry Eye March 2018 for ‘Amerikkkant’ Album, Reveal ‘Antifa” Video,” 11 Dec. 2017. Loudwire. Retrieved 12 Dec. 2017. http://loudwire.com/ministry-march-2018-amerikkkant-album-antifa-video/

[xix] Hill, John. “Power Trip to Fox News: ‘Cease and Desist’ Playing Our Music,” 7 December 2017. Loudwire. Retrieved 15 Dec 2017. http://loudwire.com/power-trip-arent-down-fox-news-playing-their-music/.

 

References

Aspray, Benjamin, “Megadeth: Dystopia, Slant Magazine, 22 January 2016. Retrieved December 22, 2017. https://www.slantmagazine.com/music/review/megadeth-dystopia.

BBC News. “Sweden brings back military conscription amid Baltic tensions.” 2 March 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-39140100.

Blabbermouth. “THE 69 EYES: Video for new single ‘Jet Fighter Plane.” 15 January 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2017. http://archive.blabbermouth.net/news/the-69-eyes-video-for-new-single-jet-fighter-plane.html#pPTJZ664zKp0XACp.99

Black Sabbath, “War Pigs,” 2017, Eagle Rock Film Productions. Directed by Dick Carruthers.

Childers, Chad, “Megadeth Continue ‘The Threat is Real” Story with ‘Dystopia’ Video,” Loudwire, 21 January 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2017. http://loudwire.com/megadeth-dystopia-video/.

Christopher, Michael. “Ministry Eye March 2018 for ‘Amerikkkant’ Album, Reveal ‘Antifa” Video,” 11 Dec. 2017. Loudwire. Retrieved 12 Dec. 2017. http://loudwire.com/ministry-march-2018-amerikkkant-album-antifa-video/

Draconian, “Stellar Tombs,” Dark Lyrics. 2015. http://www.darklyrics.com/lyrics/draconian/sovran.html#4

Draconian, “Stellar Tombs,” official music video, written and directed by Bowen Stains, 2015. Nuclear Blast Records.

Full Metal Jackie, “Megadeth’s Dave Mustaine Not a Political Songwriter: ‘We Write About All Kinds of Different Things,” 20 October 2017. Loudwire. Retrieved 04 December 2017. http://loudwire.com/megadeth-dave-mustaine-not-political-songwriter/.

Hill, John. “Power Trip to Fox News: ‘Cease and Desist’ Playing Our Music,” 7 December 2017. Loudwire. Retrieved 15 Dec 2017. http://loudwire.com/power-trip-arent-down-fox-news-playing-their-music/.

Megadeth, “Dystopia,” official video, 2016, directed by Blair Underwood.

Megadeth, “The Threat Is Real,” official video, 2016, directed by Blair Underwood.

Ministry, “Antifa,” official music video, 2017, Nuclear Blast Records.

Ministry, “Deconstructing the song ‘Antifa’” (Official Trailer), 2017, Nuclear Blast Records.

O’Brian, Nolan. “Physicist declassifies rescued nuclear test films.” Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 14 March 2017. https://www.llnl.gov/news/physicist-declassifies-rescued-nuclear-test-films.

Rose, Gillian. Visual Methodologies: An Introduction to Researching Visual Materials. 4th Ed. SAGE Publications, 2016.

The 69 Eyes. “Jet Fighter Plane.” AZ Lyrics, 2016, https://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/69eyes/jetfighterplane.html.

The 69 Eyes, “Jet Fighter Plane,” official music video, directed by Ville Juurikkala, 2016. Nuclear Blast Records.

Vandala, “The 69 Eyes Release First Single and Music Video for ‘Jet Fighter Plane.’” Vandala Magazine. 16 January 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2017. https://vandalamagazine.com/2016/01/20/the-69-eyes-release-first-single-and-music-video-for-jet-fighter-plane/.

Wiederhorn, John. “Black Sabbath Bassist Geezer Butler Gets ‘Paranoid.’” Noisecreep. 30 July 2010. Retrieved 15 February 2017. http://noisecreep.com/black-sabbath-bassist-geezer-butler-gets-paranoid/.

 

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